Soundspeed data for pipe materials and liquids, chemicals and water

Sound Speeds in Water, Liquid and Materials

Sound Speed (or sound velocity) refers to the speed of sound waves passing through an elastic medium. The actual speed depends upon the medium (for example, sound waves move faster through water than through air - because water has a higher density). The characteristics of the medium are also important factors, especially temperature.

An approximate sound speed in air (in meters per second) can be calculated using the following formula:

c_{\mathrm{air}} = (331{.}5 + (0{.}6 \cdot \vartheta)) \ \mathrm{ms^{-1}}\,

where \vartheta\, (theta) is the temperature in degrees Celsius (°C).

The tables below have been compiled as an easy point of reference when trying to ascertain the sound speed in water, liquids and materials.

Below is a list of materials that can be measured using an ultrasonic flow meter or clamp on flow meters:

Table One: Sound Speeds in Solids

Sound Speed* Shear Wave (25°C)
Material m/s ft/s
Steel, 1% Carbon, hardened 3,150 10,335
Carbon Steel 3,230 10,598
Mild Steel 3,235 10,614
Steel, 1% Carbon 3,220 10,565
302 Stainless Steel 3,120 10,236
303 Stainless Steel 3,120 10,236
304 Stainless Steel 3,141 10,306
304L Stainless Steel 3,070 10,073
316 Stainless Steel 3,272 10,735
347 Stainless Steel 3,095 10,512
Aluminium 3,100 10,171
Aluminium (rolled) 3,040 9,974
Copper 2,260 7,415
Copper (annealed) 2,325 7,628
Copper (rolled) 2,270 7,448
CuNi (70%Cu 30%Ni) 2,540 8,334
CuNi (90%Cu 10%Ni) 2,060 6,759
Brass (Naval) 2,120 6,923
Gold (hard-drawn) 1,200 3,937
Inconel 3,020 9,909
Iron (electrolytic) 3,240 10,630
Iron (Armco) 3,240 10,630
Ductile Iron 3,000 9,843
Cast Iron 2,500 8,203
Monel 2,720 8,924
Nickel 2,960 9,712
Tin (rolled) 1,670 5,479
Titanium 3,125 10,253
Tungsten (annealed) 2,890 9,482
Tungsten (drawn) 2,640 8,661
Tungsten (carbide) 3,980 13,058
Zinc (rolled) 2,440 8,005
Glass (pyrex) 3,280 10,761
Glass (heavy silicante first) 2,380 7,808
Glass (light brate crown) 2,840 9,318
Nylon 1,150 3,772
Nylon, 6-6 1,070 3,510
Polyethylene (LD) 540 1,772
PVC, CPVC 1,060 3,477
Acrylic 1,430 4,690

* Please note these values are to be considered nominal. Solids may be inhomogenous and anisotropic. Actual values depend on exact composition, temperature, and to a lesser extent, on pressure and stress.

Below is a list of liquids that can be measured using an ultrasonic flowmeter or clamp on flowmeters:

Table Two: Sound Speeds in Fluids

All data given at 25°C (77°F) unless otherwise stated
Sound Speed Change v/Ã??? °C Kinematic Viscosity x10-6
Substance Chemical Formula Specific Gravity m/s ft/s m/s/°C m2/s ft2/s
Acetic anhydride (22) (CH3CO)2O 1.082 (20°C) 1,180 3,871.4 2.5 0.769 8.274
Acetic acid, anhydride (22) (CH3CO)2O 1.082 (20°C) 1,180 3,871.4 2.5 0.769 8.274
Acetic acid, nitrile C2H3N 0.783 1,290 4,232.3 4.1 0.441 4.745
Acetic acid, ethyl ester (33) C4H802 0.901 1,085 3,559.7 4.4 0.467 5.025
Acetic acid, methyl ester C3H6O2 0.934 1,211 3,973.1 0.407 4.379
Acetone C3H6O 0.791 1,174 3,851.7 4.5 0.399 4.293
Acetonitrile C2H3N 0.783 1,290 4,232.3 4.1 0.441 4.745
Acetonylacetone C6H10O2 0.729 1,399 4,539.9 3.6
Acetylen dichloride C2H2Cl2 1.26 1,015 3,330.1 3.8 0.400 4.304
Acetylene tetrabromide (47) C2H2Br4 2.966 1,027 3,369.4
Acetylene tetrachloride (47) C2H2Cl4) 1.595 1,147 3,763.1 1.156 (15°c) 12.438 (15°C)
Alcohol C2H6O 0.789 1,207 3,960 4.0 1.396 15.02
Alkazene-13 C15H24 0.86 1,317 4,320.9 3.9
Alkazene-25 C10H12Cl2 1.20 1,307 4,288.1 3.4
2-Amino-ethanol C2H7NO 1.018 1,724 5,656.2 3.4
2-Aminotolidine(46) C7H9N 0.999 (20°C) 1,618 5,308.4 4.394 (20°C) 47.279 (68°F)
4-Aminotolidine(46) C7H9N 0.966 (45°C) 1,480 4,855.6 1.863 (50°C) 20.045 (122°F)
Ammonia (35) NH3 0.771 1,729 (-33°C) 5,672.6 (-27°C) 6.68 0.292 (-33°C) 3.141 (-27°F)
Amorphus Polyolefin 0.98 962.6 (190°C) 3158.2 (374°F) 26,600 286,000
t-Amyl Polyolefin C5H12O 0.81 1,204 3,950.1 4.374

47.064

Aminobenzene (41) C6H5NO2 1.022 1,639 5,377.3 4.0 3.63 39.058
Aniline (41) C6H5NO2 1.022 1,639 5,377.3 4.0 3.63 39.058
Argon (45) Ar 1.400 (-188°C) 853 (-188°C) 2798.6 (-306°F)
Azine C6H5N 0.982 1,415 4,642.4 4.1 0.992 (20°C) 10.673 (68°F)
Benzene (29, 40, 41) C6H6 0.879 1,306 4,284.8 4.65 0.711 7.65
Benzol (29, 40, 41) C6H6 0.879 1,306 4284.8 4.65 0.711 7.65
Bromine (21) Br2 2.928 889 2,916.7 3.0 0.323 3.475
Bromo-benzene (46) C6H5Br 1.522 1,170 (20°C) 3,838.6 (68°F) 0.693 7.456
1-Bromo-butane (46) C4HgBr 1.276 (20°C) 1,019 3,343.2 (68°F) 0.275 5.272 (59°C)
Bromo-ethane (46) C2H5Br 1.460 (20°C) 900 (20°C) 2,952.8 (68°F) 0.275 2.959
Bromoform (46,47) CHBr3 2.89 (20°C) 918 3,011.8 3.1 0.654 7.037
n-Butane(2) C4H10 0.601 (0°C) 1,085 (-5°C) 3,559.7 (23°C) 5.8
2-Butanol C4H10O 0.81 1,240 4,068.2 3.3 3.239 34.851
sec-Butylalcohol C4H10O 0.81 1,240 4,068.2 3.3 3.239 34.851
n-Butyl bromide (46) C4H9Br 1.276 (20°C) 1,019 (20°C) 3,343.2 (68°F) 0.49 (15°C) 5.272 (59°C)
n-Butyl chloride (22,46) C4H9Cl 0.887 1,140 3,740.2 4.57 0.529 (15°C) 5.692 (59°F)
tert Butyl chloride C4H9Cl 0.84 984 3,228.3 4.2 0.646 6.95
Butyl oleate C22H42O2 1,404 4,606.3 3.0
2,3 Butylene glycol C4H10O2 1.019 1,484 4,868.8 1.51
Cadmium (7) Cd 2,237.7 (400°C) 7,341.5 (752°F) 1.355cp (440°C) 14.579 (824°F)
Carbinol (40,41) CH4O 0.791 (20°C) 1,076 3,530.2 292 0.695 7.478
Carbitol C6H14O3 0.988 1,458 4,783.5
Carbon Dioxide (26) CO2 1.101 (-37°C) 839 (-37°C) 2,752.6 (-35°F) 7.71 0.137 (-37°C) 1.474 (-35°F)
Carbon disulphide CS2 1.261 (22°C) 1,149 3,769.7 0.278 2.991
Carbon tetrachloride (33, 35, 47) CCl4 1.595 (20°C) 926 3038.1 2.48 0.607 6.531
Carbon tetrafluoride (14) (Freon 14) CF4 1.75 (-150°C) 875.2 (-150°C) 2,871.5 (-238°F) 6.61
Cetane (23) C16H34 0.773 (20°C) 1,338 4,389.8 3.71 4.32 46.483
Chloro-benezene C6H5Cl 1.106 1,273 4,176.5 3.6 0.722 7.768
1-Chloro-butane (22,46) C4H9Cl 0.887 1,140 3740.2 4.57 0.529 (15°C) 5.692 (59°F)
Chloro-diFluoromethane (3) (Freon 22) CHClF2 1.491 (-69°C) 893.9 (-50°C) 2,932.7 (-58°F) 4.79
Chloroform (47) CHCl3 1.489 979 3,211.9 3.4 0.55 5.918
1-Chloro-propane (47) C4H7Cl 0.892 1,058 3,471.1 0.378 4.067
Chlorotrifluoromethane CClF3 724 (-82°C) 2,375.3 (-116°F) 5.26
Cinnamaldehyde C9H8O 1.112 1,554 5,098.4 3.2
Cinnamic aldehyde C9H8O 1.112 1,554 5,098.4 3.2
Colamine C2H7NO 1.018 1,724 5,656.2 3.4
o-Cresol (46) C7H8O 1.047 1,541 5,055.8 4.29 46.16
m-Cresol (46) C7H8O 1.034 (20°C) 1,500 (20°C) 4,921.3 (68°F) 5.979 (40°C) 64.334 (104°F)
Cyanomethane C2H3N 0.783 1,290 4,232.3 4.1 0.441 4.745
Cyclohexane (15) C6H12 0.779 1,248 4,094.5 5.41 1.31 14.095
Cyclohexane C6H12O 0.962 1,454 4,770.3 3.6 0.071 (17°C) 0.764 (63°F)
Cyclohexanone C6H10O 0.948 1,423 4,668.6 4.0
Decane (46) C10H22 0.730 1,252 4,107.6 1.26 (20°C) 13.55 (68°F)
1-Decane (27) C10H20 0.746 1,235 4,051.8 4.0
n-Decylene (27) C10H20 0.746 1,235 4,051.8 4.0
Diacetyl C4H6O2 0.99 1,236 4,055.1 4.6
Diamylamine C10H23N 1,235 4,120.7 3.9
1,2 Dibrimo-ethane (47) C2H4Br2 2.18 995 3,264.4 0.79 (20°C) 8.5 (68°F)
trans-1,2-Dibromoethane (47) C2H2Br2 2.231 935 3,067.6
Dibutyl phthalate C8H22O4 1,408 4,619.4
Dichloro-t-butyl alcohol C4H8Cl2O 1,304 4,278.2 3.8
2,3 Dichlorodioxane C2H6Cl2O2 1,391 4,563.6 3.7
Dichlorodifluoromethane (3) (Freon 12) CCl2F2 1.516 (40°C) 774.1 2,539.7 4.24
1,2 Dichloro ethane (47) C2H4Cl2 1.253 1,193 3,914 0.61 6.563
cis1,2-Dichloro-ethene (3, 47) C2H2Cl2 1.284 1,061 3,481
trans1,2-Dichloro-ethene (3,47) C2H2Cl2 1.257 1,010 3,313.6
Dichloro-fluoromethane (3) (Freon 21) CHCl2F 1.426 (0°C) 891 (0°C) 2,923.2 (32°F) 3.97
1-2-Dichlorohexafluoro-cyclobutane (47)) C4Cl2F6 1.654 669 2,194.9
1-3-Dichloro-isobutane C4H8Cl2 1.14 1,220 4002.6 3.4
Dichloro methane (3) CH2Cl2 1.327 1,070 3,510.5 3.94 0.31 3.335
1,1-Dichloro-1,2,2,2 tetra fluoroethane CClF2-CClF2 1.455 665.3 (-10°C) 2,182.7 (14°F) 3.73
Diethyl ether C4H10O 0.713 985 3,231.6 4.87 0.311 3.346
Diethylene glycol C4H10O3 1.116 1,586 5,203.4 2.4
Diethylene glycol, monoethyl ether C6H14O3 0.988 1,458 4,783.5
Diethylenimide oxide C4H9NO 1.00 1,442 4,731 3.8
1,2-bis(DiFluoramino) butane (43) C4H8(NF2)2 1.216 1,000 3,280.8
1,2-bis(DiFluoramino)-2-methylpropane (43) C4H9(NF2)2 1.213 900 2,952.8
1,2-bis(DiFluroamino)-propane (43) C3H6(NF2)2 1.265 960 3,149.6
2,2-bis(DiFluoramino)- propane (43) C3H6(NF2)2 1.254 890 2920
2,2-Dihydroxydiethy ether C4H10O3 1.116 1,586 2,203.4 2.4
Dihydroxethane C2H6O2 1.113 1,658 5,439.6 2.1
1,3-Dimethyl-benzene (46) C8H10 0.868 (15°C) 1,343 (20°C) 4,406.2 (68°F) 0.749 (15°C) 8.059 (59°F)
1,2-Dimethyl-benzene (29, 46) C8H10 0.897 (20°C) 1,331.5 4,368.4 4.1 0.903 (20°C) 9.716 (68°F)
1,4-Dimethyl-benzene (46) C8H10 1,334 (20°C) 4,376.6 (68°F) 0.662 7,123
2,2-Dimethyl-butane (29, 33) C6H14 0.649 (20°C) 1,079 3,540
Dimethyl ketone C3H6O 0.791 1,174 3,851.7 4.5 0.399 4.293
Dimethyl pentane (47) C7H16 0.674 1,063 3,487.5
Dimethyl phthalate C8H10O4 1.2 1,463 4,799.9
Diido-methane CH2I2 3.235 980 3,215.2
Dioxane C4H8O2 1.033 1,376 4,514.4
Dodecane (23) C12H26 0.749 1,279 4,196.2 3.85 1.80 19.368
1,2-Ethanediol C2H6O2 1.113 1,658 5,439.6 2.1
Ethanenitrile C2H3N 0.783 1,290 4,232.3 0.441 4.745
Ethanoic anhydride (22) (CH3CO2)2O 1.082 1,180 3,871.4 0.769 8.274
Ethanol C2H6O 0.789 1,207 3,960 4.0 1.39 14.956
Ethanol amide C2H7NO 1.018 1,724 5,656.2 3.4
Ethoxyethane C4H10O 0.713 985 3,231.6 4.87 0.311 3.346
Ethyl acetate (33) C4H8O2 0.901 1,085 3,559.7 4.4 0.489 5.263
Ethyl alcohol C2H6O 0.789 1,207 3,960 4.0 1.396 15.020
Ethyl benzene C8H10 0.867 (20°C) 1,338 (20°C) 4,.89.8 (68°F) 0.797 (17°C) 8.575 (63°F)
Ethyl Bromide (46) C2H5Br 1.461 (20°C) 900 (20°C) 2,952.8 (68°F) 0.275 (20°C) 2.959 (68°F)
Ethyliodide (46) C2H5I 1.950 (20°C) 876 (20°C) 2874 (68°F) 0.29 3.12
Ether C4H10O 0.713 985 3231.6 4.87 0.311 3.346
Ethyl ether C4H10O 0.713 985 3231.6 4.87 0.311 3.346
Ethyene bromide (47) C2H4Br2 2.18 995 3264.4 0.79 8.5
Ethylene chloride (47) C2H4Cl2 1.253 1,193 3,914 0.61 6.563
Ethylene glycol C2H6O2 1.113 1,658 5439.6 2.1 17,208 (20°C) 185.158 (68°F)
d-Fenochone C10H16O 0.947 1,320 4330.7 0.22 2.367
d-2-Fenechanone C10H16O 0.947 1,320 4330.7 0.22 2.367
Fluorine F 0.545 (-143°C) 403 (-143°C) 1322.2 (-225°F) 11.31
Fluoro-benzene (46) C6H5F 1.024 (20°C) 1,189 3900.9 0.584 (20°C) 6.283 (68°F)
Formaldehyde, methyl ester C2H4O2 0.974 1,127 3697.5 4.02
Formamide CH3NO 1.134 (20°C) 1,622 5321.5 2.2 2.91 31.311
Formic acid, amide CH3NO 1.134 (20°C) 1,622 5321.5 2.91 31.311
Freon R12 774.2 2540
Furfural C5H4O2 1.157 1,444 4737.5 3.7
Furfural alcohol C5H6O2 1.135 1,450 4575.2 3.4
Fural C5H4O2 1.157 1,444 4737.5 3.7
2-Furalehyde C5H4O2 1.157 1,444 4737.5 3.7
2-Furancarboxaldehyde C5H4O2 1.157 1,444 4737.5 3.7
2-Furyl-Methanol C5H6O2 1.135 1,450 4757.2 3.4
Gallium Ga 6.095 2,870 9416
Glycerin C3H8O3 1.26 1,904 6246.7 2.2 757.1 8,081.836
Glycerol C3H8O3 1.26 1,904 6246.7 2.2 757.1 8,081.836
Glycol C2H6O2 1.113 1658 5439.6 2.1
50% Glycol / 50% H2O 1,578 5,177
Helium (45) He4 0.125 (-269°C) 183 (-269°C) 600.4 (-452°F) 0.025 .269
Heptane (22,23) C7H16 0.684 (20°C) 1,131 3,710.6 4.25 0.598 (20°C) 6.434 (68°F)
n-Heptane (29, 33) C7H16 0.684 (20°C) 1,180 3,871.3 4.0
Hexachloro-Cyclapentadiene (47) C5Cl6 1.7180 1,150 3,773
Hexadecane (23) C16H34 0.773 (20°C) 1,338 4,389.8 3.71 4.32 (20°C) 46.483 (68°F)
Hexalin C6H12O 0.962 1,454 4770.3 3.6 70.69 (17°C) 760.882 (63°F)
Hexane (16, 22, 23) C6H14 0.659 1,112 3,648.3 2.71 0.446 4.798
n-Hexane (29, 33) C6H14 0.649 (20°C) 1,079 3,540 4.53
2,5-Hexanedione C6H10O2 0.729 1,399 4589.9 3.6
n-Hexanol C6H14O 0.819 1,300 4,265.1 3.8
Hexahydrobenzene C6H12 0.779 1,248 4094.5 5.41 1.31 (17°C) 14.095 (63°F)
Hexahydrophenol C6H12O 0.962 1,454 4770.3 3.6
Hexamethylene (15) C6H12 0.779 1,248 4094.5 5.41 1.31 (17°C) 14.095 (63°F)
Hydrogen (45) H2 0.071 (-256°C) 1,187 (-256°C) 3894.4 (-429°F) 0.003 (-256°C) 0.032 (-429°F)
2-Hydroxy-toluene (46) C7H8O 1.047 (20°C) 1,541 (20°C) 5,055.8 (68°F) 4.29 (40°C) 46.16 (104°F)
3-Hydroxy-toluene (46) C7H8O 1.034 (20°C) 1,500 (20°C) 4,921.3 (68°F) 5.979 (40°C) 64.334 (104°F)
Iado-benzene (46) C6H5I 1.823 1,114 (20°C) 3,654.9 (68°F) 0.954
Iado-ethane (46) C2H5I 1.950 (20°C) 876 (20°C) 2,874 (68°F) 0.29 3.12
Iado-methane CH3I 2.28 (20°C) 978 3,208.7 0.211 2.27
Isobutyl acetate (22) C6H12O 1,180 (27°C) 3,871.4 (81°F) 4.85
Isobutanol C4H10O 0.81 (20°C) 1,212 3,976.4
Iso-butane 1219.8 4002
Isopentane (36) C5H12 0.62 (20°C) 980 3,215.2 48 0.34 3.658
Isopropanol (46) C3H8O 0.785 (20°C) 1,170 (20°C) 3,838.6 (68°F) 2.718 29.245
Isopropyl alcohol (46) C3H8O 0.785 (20°C) 1,170 (20°C) 3,838.6 (68°F) 2.718 29.245
Kerosene 0.81 1,324 4,343.8 3.6
Ketohexamethylene C6H10O 0.948 1,423 4,668.6 4.0
Lithium fluoride (42) LiF 2,485 (900°C) 8,152.9 (1652°F) 1.29
Mercury (45) Hg 13.594 1,449 (24°C) 4,753.9 (75°F) 0.114 1.226
Mesityloxide C6H16O 0.85 1,310 4,297.9
Methane (25, 28, 38, 39) CH4 0.162 (-89°C) 405 (-89°C) 1,328.7 (-128°F) 17.5
Methanol (40, 41) CH4O 0.791 (20°C) 1,076 3530.2 292 0.695 7.478
Methyl acetate C3H6O2 0.934 1,211 3973.1 0.407 4.379
o-Methylaniline C7H9N 0.999 (20°C) 1,618 5,308.4 4.394 (20°C) 47.279 (68°F)
4-Methylaniline C7H9N 0.966 (45°C) 1,480 4855.6 1.863 (50°C) 20.095 (122°F)
Methyl alcohol (40,44) CH4O 0.791 1,076 3530.2 292 0.695 7.478
Methyl benzene C7H8 0.867 1,328 (20°C) 4,357 (68°F) 4.27 0.644 7.144
2-Methyl-butane (36) C5H12 0.62 (20°C) 980 3215.2 0.34 3.658
Methyl carbinol C2H6O 0.789 1,207 3960 4.0 1.396
Methyl-chloroform (47) C2H3Cl3 1.33 985 3,231.6 0.902 (20°C) 9.705 (68°F)
Methyl-cyanide C2H3N 0.783 1,290 4,232.3 0.441 4.745
3-Methyl cyclohexanol C7H14O 0.92 1400 4,593.2
Methylene chloride (3) CH2Cl2 1.327 1,070 3510.5 3.94 0.31 3.335
Methylene iodide CH2I2 3.235 980 3,215.2
Methyl formate (22) C2H4O2 0.974 1.127 3,697.5 4.02
Methyl iodide CH3I 2.28 (20°C) 978 3,208.7 0.211 2.27
a-Methyl napthalene C11H10 1.090 1,510 4,954.1 3.7
2-Methylphenol C7H8O 1.047 1,541 5,055.8 4.29 46.16
3-Methylphenol C7H8O 1.034 (20°C) 1500 (20°C) 4,921.3 (20°C) 5979 (40°C) 64.334 (104°F)
Milk, homogenized 1,548 5,080
Morpholine C4H9NO 1.00 1,442 4,731 3.8
Naptha 0.76 1,225 4,019
Natural Gas (37) 0.316 (-103°C) 753 (-103°C) 2,470.5 (-153°F)
Neon (450 Ne 1.207 (-246°C) 595 (-246°C) 1,952.1 (-411°F)
Nitrobenzene (46) C6H5NO2 1.204 (20°C) 1,415 (20°C) 4,624.4 (68°F) 1.514 16.29
Nitrogen (45) N2 0.808 (-199°C) 962 (-199°C) 3,156.2 (-326°F) 0.217 (-199°C) 2.334 (-326°F)
Nitromethane (43) CH3NO2 1.135 1,300 4,265.1 4.0 0.549 5.907
Nonane (23) C9H2O 0.718 (20°C) 1,207 3,960 4.04 0.99 (20°C) 10.652 (68°F)
1-Nonene (27) C9H18 0.736 (20°C) 1,207 3,960 4.0
Octane (23) C8H18 0.703 1,172 3,845.1 4.14 0.73 7.857
n-Octane (29) C8H18 0.704 (20°C) 1,212.5 3,978 3.50 0.737 .930
1-Octene (27) C8H16 0.723 (20°C) 1,175.5 3,856.6 4.10
Oil of Camphor Sassafrassy 1390 4560.4 3.8
Oil, Car (SAE 20a.30) 1.74 870 2,854.3 190 2,045.093
Oil, Castor C11H10O10 0.969 1,477 4,845.8 3.6 0.670 7.209
Oil, Diesel 0.80 1,250 4,101
Oil, Fuel AA gravity 0.99 1,485 4,872 3.7
Oil (Lubricating X200) 1530 5019.9
Oil (Olive) 0.912 1431 4694.9 2.75 100 1076.365
Oil (Peanut) 0.936 1,458 4,738.5
Oil (Sperm) 0.88 1,440 4,724.4
Oil, 6 1,509 4,951
2,2-Oxydiethanol C4H10O3 1.116 1,586 5,203.4 2.4
Oxygen (45) O2 1.155(-186°C) 952 (-186°C) 3,123.4 (-303°F) 0.173 1.861
Pentachlorine-ethane (47) C2HCl5 1.687 1,082 3,549.9
Pentalin (47) C2HCl5 1.687 1,082 3,549.9
Pentane (36) C5H12 0.626 (20°C) 1,020 3,346.5 0.363 3.905
n-Pentane (47) C5H12 0.557 1,006 3,300.5 0.41 4.413
Perchlorocyclopentadiene (47) C5Cl6 1.718 1,150 3,773
Perchloro-ethylene (47) C2Cl4 1.632 1,036 3,399
Perfluoro-1-Hepten (47) C7F14 1.67 583 1912.7
Perfluoro-n-Hexane (47) C6F14 1.672 508 1,666.7
Phene (29, 40, 41) C6H6 0.879 1306 4284.8 4.65 0.711 7.65
b-Phenyl acrolein C9H8O 1.112 1554 5098.4 3.2
Phenylamine (41) C6H5NO2 1.022 1639 5377.3 4.0 3.63 39.058
Phenyl bromide (46) C6H5Br 1.522 1170 (20°C) 3838.6 (68°F) 0.693 7.456
Phenyl chloride C6H5Cl 1.106 1273 4176.5 3.6 0.722 7.768
Phenyl iodide (46) C6H5I 1.823 1114 (20°C) 3654.9 (68°F) 0.954 (15°C) 10.265 (59°F)
Phenyl methane (16, 52) C7H8 0.867 (20°C) 1328 (20°C) 4357 (68°F) 4.27 0.644 6.929
3-Phenyl prapenal C9H8O 1.112 1554 5098.4 3.2
Phthalardione C8H4O3 1125 (152°C) 3691 (306°F)
Phthalic acid, anhydride C8H4O3 1125 (152°C) 3691 (306°F)
Pthalic anhydride C8H4O3 1125 (152°C) 3691 (306°F)
Pimelic ketone C6H10O 0.948 1423 4668.6 4.0
Plexigas, Lucite, Acrylic 2651 8698
Polyterpene Resin 0.77 1099.8 3608.4 39,000 419,500
Potassium bromide (42) KBr 1169 (900°C) 3835.3 (1652°F) 0.71 .715cp (900°C) 7.693 (1652°F)
Potassium fluoride (42) KF 1792 (900°C) 5879.3 (1652°F) 1.03
Potassium Iodide (42) KI 985 (900°) 3231.6 (1652°F) 0.64
Potassium nitrate (48) KNO3 1.859 (352°C) 1740.1 (352°C) 5709 (666°C) 1.1 1.19 (327°C) 12.804 (621°F)
Propane (2,13) (-45 to -130°C) C3H8 0.585 (-45Ã???°C) 1003 (-45°C) 3290.6 (-49°F) 5.7
1,2,3-Propanetriol C3H8O3 1.26 1904 6246.7 2.2 .000757
1-Propanol (46) C3H8O 0.78 (20°C) 1222 (20°C) 4009.2 (68°F)
2-Propanol (46) C3H8O 0.785 (20°C) 1170 (20°C) 3838.6 (68°F) 2.718 29.245
2-Propanone C3H6O 0.791 1174 3851.7 4.5 0.399 4.293
Propene (17, 18, 35) C3H6 0.563 (-13°C) 963 (-13°C) 3159.4 (9°F) 6.32
n-Propyl acetate (22) C5H10O2 1280 (2°C) 4199 (36°F) 4.63
n-Propyl-alcohol C3H8O 0.78 (20°C) 1,222 (20°C) 4009.2 (68°F) 2.549 27.427
Propylchloride (47) C3H7Cl 0.892 1058 3471.1 0.378 4.067
Propylene (17, 18, 35) C3H6 0.563 (-13°C) 963 (-13°C) (3159.4) (9°F) 6.32
Pyridine C6H5N 0.982 1415 4642.4 4.1 0.992 (20°C) 10.673 (68°F)
Refrigerant 11 (3,4) CCl3F 1.49 828.3 (0°C) 2717.5 (32°F) 3.56
Refrigerant 12 (3) CCl2F2 1.516 (-40°C) 774.1 (-40°C) 2539.7 (-40°C) 4.24
Refrigerant 14 (14) CF4 1.75 (-150°C) 875.24 (-150°C) 2871.6 (-268Ã???°F) 6.61
Refigerant 21 (3) CHCl2F 1.426 (0°C) 891 (0°C) 2923.2 (32°F) 3.97
Refrigerant 22 (3) CHClF2 1.491 (-69°C) 893.9 (50°C) 2932.7 (122°F) 4.79
Refrigerant 113 (3) CCl2F-CClF2 1.563 783.7 (0°C) 2571.2 (32°F) 3.44
Refrigerant 114 (3) CClF2-CClF2 1.455 665.3 (-10°C) 2182.7 (14°F) 3.73
Refrigerant 115 (3) C2ClF5 656.4 (-50°C) 2153.5 (-58°F) 4.42
Refigerant C318 (3) C4F8 1.62 (-20°C) 574 (-10°C) 1,883.2 (14°F) 3.88
Selenium (8) Se 1072 (250°C) 3517.1 (482°F) 0.68
Silicone (30 cp) 0.993 990 3248 30 322.8
Sodium fluoride (42) NoF 0.877 2082 (1000°C) 6830.7 (1832°F) 1.32
Sodium nitrate (48) NoNO3 1.884 (336°C) 1763.3 (336°C) 5785.1 (637°F) 0.74 1.37 (336°C) 14.74 (637°F)
Sodium nitrite (48) NoNO2 1.805 (292°C) 1876.8 (292°C) 6157.5 (558°F)
Solvesso # 3 0.877 1370 4464.8 3.7
Spirit of wine C2H6O 0.789 1207 3960 4.0 1.396 15.02
Sulfur (7, 8, 10) S 1177 (250°C) 3861.5 (482°F) -1.13
Sulfuric Acid (1) H2SO4 1.841 1257.6 4126 1.43 11.16 120.081
Tellerium (7) Te 991 (450°C) 3251.3 (842°F) 0.73
1,1,2,2-Tetrabromo-ethane (47) C2H2Br4 2966 1027 3369.4
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-ethane (67) C2H2Cl4 1595 1147 3763.1 1156 (15°C) 12,438 (59°F)
Tetrachloroethane C2H2Cl4 1553 (20°C) 1170 (20°C) 3838.6 (68°F)

1.19 12.804
Tetrachloro-ethene (47) C2Cl4 1.632 1036 3399
Tetrachloro-Methane (33, 47) CCl4 1.595 (20°C) 926 3038.1 0.607 6.531
Tetradecane (46) C14H3O 0.763 (20°C) 1331 (20°C) 4366.8 (68°F) 2.86 (20°C) 30.773 (68°F)
Tetraethylene glycol C8H18O5 1.123 1586 5203.4 3.0
Tetrafluoro-methane (14) (Freon 14) CF4 1.75 (-150°C) 875.24 (-150°C) 2871.5 (-283°F) 6.61
Tetrahydro-1,4-isoxazine C4H9NO 1.000 1442 4731 3.8
Toluene (16, 52) C7H8 0.867 (20°C) 1328 (20°C) 4357 (68°F) 4.27 0.644 6.929
a-Toluidine (46) C7H9N 0.999 (20°C0 1618 5308.4 4.394 (20°C) 47.279 (68°F)
p-Toluidine (46) C7H9N 0.966 (45°C) 1480 4855.6 1.863 (50°C) 20.053 (122°F)
Toluol C7H8 0.866 1308 4291.3 4.2 0.58 6.24
Tribromo-methane (46,47) CHbr3 2.89 (20°C) 918 3011.8 0.654 7.037
1,1,1-Trochloro-ethane (47) C2H3Cl3 1.33 985 3231.6 0.902 (20°C) 9.705 (68°F)
Trichloro-ethene (47) C2HCl3 1.464 1028 3372.7
Trichloro-fluoromethane (3) (Freon 11) CCl3F 1.49 828.3 (0°C) 2717.5 (32°F) 3.56
Trichloro-methane (47) CHCl3 1.489 979 3211.9 3.4 0.55 5.918
1,1,2-Trichloro- 1,2,2-Tricfluoro-Etham CCl2F-CClF2 1.563 783.7 (0°C) 2571.2 (32°F)
Triethyl-amine (33) C6H15N 0.726 1123 3684.4 4.47
Triethylene glycol C6H14O4 1.123 1608 5275.6 3.8
1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-Chloro-2-Bromo-Ethane C2HClBrF3 1.869 693 2273.6
1,2,2-Trifluorotrichloro-ethane (Freon 13) CCl2F-CClF2 1.563 783.7 (0°C) 2571.2 (32°F) 3.44
d-1,2,2-Trimethylnorcamphor C10H16O 0.947 1320 4330.7 0.22 2.367
Trinitroluene C7H5(NO2)3 1.64 1610 (81°C) 5282.2 (178°F)
Turpentine 0.88 1255 4117.5 1.4 15.064
Unisis 800 0.87 1346 4416
Water, distilled (49, 50) H2O 0.996 1498 4914.7 -2.4 1.00 10.76
Water, heavy D2O 1400 4593
Water, sea 1.025 1531 5023 -2.4 1.00 10.76
Wood Alcohol (40, 41) CH4O 0.791 1076 3530.2 2.92 0.695 7.478
Xenon (45) Xe 630 (-109°C) 2067 (-164°F)
m-Xylene (46) C8H10 0.868 (15°C) 1343 (20°C) 4406.2 (68°F) 0.749 (15°C) 8.059 (59°F)
o-Xylene (29, 46) C8H10 0.897 1,331.5 4,368.4 4.1 0.903 (20°C) 9.716 (68°C)
p-Xylene (46) C8H10 1334 (20°C) 4376.6 (68°F) 0.662 7.123
Xylene hexafluoride C8H4F6 1.37 879 2883.9 0.613 6.595
Zinc (7) Zn 3298 (450°C) 10,820.2 (842°F)

Table Three: Sound Speeds in Water at Selected Temperatures

Temperature Sound Speed in Water
°C °F m/s ft/s
0 32.0 1402 4600
1 33.8 1407 4616
2 35.6 1412 4633
3 37.4 1417 4649
4 39.2 1421 4662
5 41.0 1426 4679
6 42.8 1430 4692
7 44.6 1434 4705
8 46.4 1439