Salinity is a parameter which refers to the level of dissolved salt within water. Salinity is crucial in many natural river courses and marine environments as it governs many of the key biological systems. Salinity is commonly calculated from a conductivity reading converted to salinity PSS (practical salinity scale) using a conversion factor.
Salts are highly soluble in surface and groundwater and can be transported with water movement. Excessive amount of dissolve salt in water can affect agriculture, drinking water and the health of the ecosystem. High concentrations of salt in water or soil may cause native vegetation to become unhealthy or die and can result in a decline in biodiversity through dominance of salt resistant species. The salt also makes the soil more prone to erosion which then pollutes the water with increased sediment making the water unsuitable for animal consumption. This is then threatening the plant and animal ecosystem for each species they support.